When working at height industrial climbers use ladders. Identify several types of ladders: ladders, sliding trehkolennye; odnokolennye inclined ladders, ladders vertical, hinged and free-standing, collapsible portable, ladders and stairs. All types of ladders are made of Gotham (8556-72, 26887-86). On the string or tags stairs and ladders indicate the inventory number, belonging to the shop and the date of the subsequent test. The length of the ladders shall be not more than 5 meters, equipped with a device to prevent shifts in the upper end of the ladder are the hooks grip, which prevents falling of stairs. Establish and fix up the stairs to climb. Dimensions of stairs should allow industrial climbers to work while standing on the steps, with the expectation that up to the top of the stairs at least 1m. Industrial climbers wear safety belt when working on a ladder and the height of more than 1,3 m.
When installing ladders places they occupy, fenced or protected for safe traffic and transport people. In the case of matching wooden ladders are allowed no more than two and sturdy metal clamps. Not allowed on portable ladders: to work at one ladder is more than one industrial climber move the cargo, leaving the tool and work near rotating machinery, use an electric or pneumatic tools, to perform gas and electric welding operations, support heavy items. To start use a ladder to provide stability for the possibility of shifting the upper end must be secured for sustainable design, if you can not fix, at its base should adhere to the employee in helmet. In vertical ladders angle to the horizon for more than 75 , a height of over 5m, 3m from the provision of fences in the form of arcs.
Ladders equipped with more than 10m platforms for rest every 10m. Respecting all the training requirements of stairs, industrial climbers begin to work at height with confidence. Industrial climbers can work, and supervisors are confident only if all the requirements for the preparation of aerial work performed. Not primarily, but important requirement is related to the presence of fences. Protections jobs are carried out only by state standards and are divided into: protection (designed for durability and resistance to horizontally and vertically with a load of 400N / m (40kgs / m) applied to the request); belay (designed for durability and resistance to horizontal with a load of 700N (70kgs / m) applied at any point); signal (Hold a rope, fastened to posts or stable construction, safety signs hung over 6m) at the place of installation with respect to employment on: internal (without restriction of the distance from border difference in height); outer (set the border drop in height at a distance of 0,20-0,25 m) by the method of attachment: support mounted. Protective & Safety fences are painted in yellow signal colors. Term operation for the metallic elements of at least 5 years for wooden and plastic not less than 2,5 years. Control over the exploitation of fences placed on industrial climber, wizards, or the district engineer, in Depending on a specified person in the order of the organization. Fences are collected in a set and assign a separate brigade. Erection and dismantling entrusted to a specially trained employees who use safety belt. Detected defective components fences to be replaced. Industrial climbers doing their professional duty, and specially trained people provide this process.
More expensive on this design becomes. The doors to the private elevators are made semi-automatic or automatic swing. The latter may be common sliding or telescoping, that is to go at each other. Telescopic design is preferred because less bulky. motion without danger Elevator – a complex technical structure, and his pledge safe operation – strict compliance with existing rules and regulations. The main regulatory instrument in this area are considered ‘installation and safe operation of elevators’, adopted in May 2003.
Newest pubel take into account the requirements of European standard en 81-2. Order lifting equipment should only specialized organizations with appropriate licenses, official permissions and rights. Also Recall that mechanisms must be certified. Ready to use elevator shall be representative of the State Supervision (certification procedure involves a number of difficulties, most of them is the bureaucratic character), then the customer must sign a contract for maintenance of the lift. Work on the survey and routine repairs are carried out on schedule, drawn up in accordance with the requirements of the regulations documents. Modern elevators as easy to use – just press the passengers, and control system will set the speed, the path acceleration and braking, provide a stop at the desired floor. For congestion monitors electronic weighing device.
The issue of security has been resolved in 1854 with the invention of Elisha Graves Otis. Since the system was constantly improved, but the principle of its action stayed unchanged.
Through observation and reflection can make a description of that tacit knowledge. To this, the American philosopher, calls it a reflexion on action, where the activity takes place once the event has occurred or during a break in it. Thus, a teacher who is pressing for excellence, you can integrate this reflection in action, concurrently with the task at hand, being a conversacion reflexivaa or a Oech retrospectivaa . This vision lies embedded in a constructivist conception of reality that teachers face when considering to them as architects of their practice sites. CONCLUSIONS The complexity of our academic reality consists not only of educational and technical challenges. The context, which certainly exceeds four classroom walls, and the values that underlie all academic activities are also part of the highly complex and interwoven particular conditions the what, how and for what we teach.
This problem of reality, coupled with the continuous extension and variation of the particular disciplinary field knowledge, clarifies the need for an organization of activities related to learning of the subject, a requirement for exploration of our own experience and that of same students, and a renewal requirement on our faculties, talents and inspiration, summarized in what we call artea . Read such material, authors of this quality address and share experiences in teaching groups and forums, will gradually primary form, a change which may be translated, and funneling good intentions, a change that will guide teaching plural , teaching and learning, into a tangible reality and empowering. Breaking our own limitations, to eradicate trivial routine and upgrade the teaching profession is a daily challenge and in eternum, stakeout and endless questions.
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