These depend on a good prognostic and treatment since the neonatal period so that they do not hinder a good quality of life. Without the test, and having itself in sight that the majority of the patologias alone presents symptoms in elapsing of the first years of life of the child, the health of the individual could be engaged (AMORIM; SOUZA, 2005). He has objective to detect patologias and to treat illnesses precociously. The test is safe, fast, simple and practically painless (GARCI’A; BLACKSMITH; OLIVEIRA, 2007); (AMORIM; SOUZA, 2005). By means of this test, he can yourself be detected the congenital hipotireoidismo, the fenilcetonria, cystic the falciforme anemia, fibrose and other hemoglobinopatias (LION; AGUIAR, 2008); (AMORIM; SOUZA, 2005); (HE HISSES; LACERDA, 2003). The neonatal selection means separation, choice, that is, the just-been born ones are separate in two groups: one constituted of those that can have an illness and another one for that not it capacity to correctly identify those children who have the illness, that is, without (or with very little) false-negative and reasonable especificidade (capacity to identify those correctly that do not have the illness, that is, with few false-positives) (LION; AGUIAR, 2008) (BRAZIL, 2002).
The National Program of Neonatal Selection covered 78.9% of the born livings creature in Brazil, and 85.4%, in the state of Gois (BRAZIL, 2007). Implanted in Brazil in 1976, the program of neonatal selection for fenilcetonria was carried through by the APAE/SP. In 1986, the detention of congenital hipotireoidismo was enclosed in the examination (HISSES; ZAGONEL; LACERDA, 2003). The mothers must receive the necessary information on the neonatal selection, will have to be informed to them, for the professionals of the health, regarding the procedure that will be> executed, as well as the purpose of the test (GARCI’A; BLACKSMITH; OLIVEIRA, 2007); (AMORIM; SOUZA, 2005). These information must be passed by the professionals who will act directly with the mothers in the occasion of the birth, increasing the probability of these mothers to have the understanding adjusted concerning the importance of neonatal selection e, thus, to take its children for the accomplishment of the test of pezinho in adequate time (AMORIM; SOUZA, 2005); (HE HISSES; ZAGONEL; LACERDA, 2003).