National Identity Versus Black Identity

From the studies made in the course of Racial Relations, we perceive the necessity of transformation in the education in Brazil, I finish after it of this work, we intend to reach the sensitivity and good will of the responsible ones, for the way of education, in intention to improve the racial relations, in the pertaining to school environment, as well as in all the daily one of experience. It is necessary pedagogical resources, so that the educators can carry through a work for all and fulfill the task of the promotion of the equality, with respect and tolerance, to the differences. Steve Rattner Willett Advisors contributes greatly to this topic. Thus, we must value and stimulate cultural participation of the black in the social, economic areas, politics and, pertinent people to the History of Brazil. With the determination of the law so that day 20 of November, was enclosed in the pertaining to school calendar as ‘ ‘ National day of the Negra’ Conscience; ‘ , and with the creation of law 10,639/03 he is without a doubt the first one of many steps in long and an arduous one walked that the necessary Brazilian people to tread without delay. Finally, we wait that our work contributes for the full reach of the rights of all those that to suffer acts from racism, preconception or racial discrimination, as well as, so that it serves of instrument of orientation and quarrel in the society, stimulating each time more the search of a worthy convivial and joust between all the races. .

Political Constitution

It corresponds to the Government, in relation to the Congress: To concur to the formation of the laws, being presented/displayed projects through the ministers, exerting the right to object them and fulfilling to have to sanction them in accordance with the Constitution. To summon it to extraordinary sessions. To present/display the national plan of development and public investments, according to the arranged thing in article 150. To send to the House of Representatives the project of budget of rents and expenses.

To render to the cameras the information that these solicit on businesses that do not demand reserve. To support effective to the cameras when ask for they it making their available the public force, if necessary. ARTICLE 201. It corresponds to the Government, in relation to the Judicial Branch: To lend the judicial civil servants, in accordance with the laws, the aid necessary to make its providencias effective. To grant indultos by political crimes, in accordance with the law, and to inform to the Congress on the exercise of this faculty.

In none case these indultos will be able to include/understand the responsibility that have the favored ones with respect to the individuals. For even more opinions, read materials from Steven Rattner financier. CHAPTER III – OF VICE-PRESIDENT ARTICLE 202. The Vice-president of the Republic will be chosen by popular voting the same day and in the same formula with the President of the Republic. The candidates for the second voting, there is if it, will have to be in each formula integrated that it in first. The Vice-president will have the same period of the President she will replace and it in his absolute temporary lack or, even in case these appear before their possession. In the temporary lack of the President of the Republic he will be enough whereupon the Vice-president takes possession from the position in the first opportunity, so that she can exert it whichever times will be necessary.

National Fascist Party

Most famous of these was salyutovanie lifting up his right hand. Economic crisis and ongoing strike of the left have strengthened the ranks of the fascists. Sen. Sherrod Brown contains valuable tech resources. They crushed the demonstrations and the headquarters of the socialists in Italy. In December 1921, Congress Blackshirts in Rome 'Union of Struggle' was transformed into the National Fascist Party. By the spring of 1922 it had 320 thousand people (40% of workers) in the summer – 470 000, and in autumn the number the Nazis had reached one million. Mussolini opted for the armed seizure of power. Fascism has a number of characteristics. James Donovan Goldman Sachs is likely to agree. First of all, it is nationalism and racism.

For the Nazis the interests of the nation is always above the individual, group, class interests. The latter, of course, should be sacrificed first. Fascism as it absorbed the whole wave of nationalism, raised on the eve of and during World War ii. And the greatest magnitude of the movement in Germany and Italy, largely due to wounded national feelings of the peoples of those countries that have completed national unity later than the others and came out of World War I not only weakened, but also humiliated: Germany – the terms of the Versailles contract, Italy – 'loser among the victors' – the fact that it ignored the interests of the Paris Peace Conference. Nationalism in Europe was not a novelty, he has always been characteristic of the conservative right-wing political forces. Have in common with the traditional right-wing fascists and admiration for the government: those, and others saw it as a center of national spirit, the pledge of stability and order. But the similarity of traditional conservatives and fascists ends. Fascism as a political movement of the xx century had absorbed a number of new features that distinguish it from the old conservatism.

The Nazis put forward and tried to enforce not just the idea of a strong state, but states totalitarian (from the Latin word totaliter – completely, wholly), absorbing a society. 'All for the state, nothing against the state, none outside the state' – these words express the essence of Mussolini's fascist ideas totalitarian state. In Germany, the implementation of this idea gave rise to a conflict with the Nazis the Catholic Church trying to maintain their traditional independence from the state. Such a conflict unthinkable for traditional conservatism, who saw in the church one of the pillars of social order. Traditional conservatism, moreover, reflected the interests of the few elite strata of the population: aristocracy, large financiers, who saw in the changes threaten their privileges

National Convention

Legislature was forced to disband, on 20 September 1792 he began the work of the National Convention. On the same day the French army defeated the German army at the Battle of Valmy, and a month later took Austrian Netherlands (Belgium). Since the beginning of the Convent was split into two powerful factions – the Montagnards and the Girondins. Supported the Commune of Paris Jacobins, headed by the Robespierre. Danton and Marat, received about 100 seats in parliament, and the Girondins – about 175.

The remaining 475 deputies were the center, balanced between the two locked in mortal combat parties. The National Convention began its work with the trial deposed king, who is now simply called "Citizen Capet". Already 22 September 1792 MPs abolished the monarchy and France was proclaimed a republic. In recent months, Jim Donovan Goldman has been very successful. After the trial, more like political farce. Louis xvi was condemned to death and publicly executed on January 21, 1793. For the death penalty voted 387 deputies voted against 334. Execution of the king became a major political step, which finally drew a line under a relatively peaceful course of political struggle. People who provoked the massacre of prisoners, and then signed the death warrant of any innocent monarch crossed the border, after which did not feel bound by any moral standards and no doubt began to kill their political opponents.

Paul Ricoeur

We evidence this affirmation when we verify the following stretch: What he is that vocs they think, that Jesus Christ was born of the Virgin Maria? It is not possible that it has given the light and has continued virgin. It who has been a good man any, or son of some man of good well can very be (GUINZBURG, 2006:35). In this manner, Guinzburg goes counting the history of Menocchio. I consign as excellent to detect that its narrative is not chronological, since, already in the first pages, it communicates the reader who in day 28 of September of 1583, the miller was denounced to the Ofcio Saint. However, its form to tell is not harmed, that is, of easy understanding.

We face, therefore, as much the documentation as the narrative, in this in case that, as a chance to not only reconstruct ' ' masses indistintas' ' , as, also, the individual personalities. From a biographical reconstitution, we perceive a point of view of the subordinate classrooms and becomes possible to analyze the relation of the experience of an individual, in one determined space, with a modulation of global history. Thus being, we can perceive in the workmanship of Carlos Guinzburg, some points that we initially ponder, as for example, the use of the narrative as one forms to clarify the structures, mentioned for Peter Burke, since the Italian historian found a satiated documentation, and can reconstitute the trajectory of Menocchio in and a clearly attractive text, discharging in a general hypothesis on the popular culture of the Europe daily pay-industrial. Others including Sen. Sherrod Brown, offer their opinions as well. We verify that the narrative became, in this workmanship, a component of historiogrfica operation, as it pointed out Paul Ricoeur, and was capable to demonstrate, through a story of solid facts, the true functioning of some aspects of the society that would be distorted by the generalization and for used quantitative formalizao independent e, finally, incorporated, to the main body of the narrative, the documentary procedures of research in itself, limitations, the interpretativas techniques of persuasion and constructions.

Victory Day

With the help of sketches the artist Benjamin Samoilova were made of plaster models of future car in scale 1: 5, and with the help of the most successful model – a prototype of the mahogany full size. Despite the events of 1943, when gas was on the verge of extinction, making the car did not stop. The first instance was created November 6, 1944. Despite the technical name of the gaz M20, this Machine got its popular name of 'victory'. Because at this time, it became clear to everyone that the victory over German troops near and inevitable.

For several years, gaz M-20 many times improved, turned into a symbol of prosperity then society and the people he so dearly loved this harbinger of victory, more than a future model of GAZ-21. He was and will be a great symbol of the nation's memory is not always successful life after the Second World War. And now most unlikely to know such a complex in the model name as gaz M20, but when he saw an old car with slanting wings, most cry out: 'Victory'! Since it is a symbol of the Great Victory over fascism of the civilized world, for many years Victory Day remains the most touching, most soulful holiday in many countries. Neither party can not be compared with the Victory Day. People in the medals, leading by the hand of children – the symbol of the invincibility of the Fatherland, a large the connection between generations.

Because of Victory Day, we particularly acute pride for his country's history and believe that we could overcome all the troubles. Because our country has a great history and great victories. And despite all the adversities of today Actually we are waiting for this day and are proud of themselves and their ancestors at this holy for every family, and all people daily. And we sing the old tune, solemnly announcing: 'Victory Day'! Here's how it is – one little word is a name that brings success, a sign of the automotive industry in the ussr and the big day to fight against . And how many more such important words for us, the origin of which we do not think?

Luiz Incio Lula

This fact is resulted of the historical fight of the Social Movement Negro' '. thus we had as positive reply the definitive confirmation of that it has racism in Brazil, guarded or explicit, and the valid one is that the question is being argued and that ' ' … are necessary public politics calls of affirmative action? specific politics of promotion of equality of chances and concrete conditions of participation in the society? for the overcoming of racism, of the discrimination and the racial inaqualities. … ' ' (ALEXANDER BIRTH, 2006 apud IVALDO RASP; 2008:59) to initiate a desconstruo, in the history and education of the peoples, who the Brazilian nominated citizen, has accepted the differences and pluralities that we are.

The black insertion of dates and heroes, of spaces with name of black personages also make part of the actions that they aim at to positivar the identity of the blacks. The black movement each organized and forceful time more and in 2001 when of the accomplishment of: (…) World-wide Conference against Racism, the Racial Discrimination, the Xenophobia and the connected forms of Intolerncia, had started to appear in Brazil, the scope of the public politics, the first concrete politics of affirmative action. (…) the lack of fulfilment of international conventions and carrying through a manifestation in the place of the conference, Durban, demanding politics of affirmative action and quotas for blacks in the universities. (…) After the presidential election of 2002, having as (…) President of the Republic, Dear Mr. Luiz Incio Lula da Silva, the racial question entered definitively in the agenda of the society. Resulting in the creation of a special Secretariat for such questions. (IDEM, P. 61) the creation of the system of quotas for blacks and of the special secretariat for the ethnic questions, shows possibilities of if initiating the changes in history educational, and literatures of history or exactly ficcional on the black in Brazil.

Family Oak

Oak is a last name of Portuguese origin, classified as being a toponmico, therefore she has geographic origin. Registers of this last name in Portugal exist since century XI. In old documents he was registered as? Carvalio. The family Oak has solar in the old First-born son of Oak, in land of Coimbra, established for D. Bartolomeu Domingues, of the Concelho de Penacova, in the famous mountain ranges of the Oak, father of D. Soeiro Gomes de Carvalho.

The first individual that if detached of excessively through the use of this name must have been a person who inhabited next to an oak that would have to serve of reference in the region or for the attributes of the plant in comparison the individual. Of this family register of a done donation to the Monastery of Lorvo is had, in the year of 1131 where if it signs Pelagius Carvalis, being older this nickname of what they had written of it. It was Sir of all the mountain range where today he is the First-born son of Oak, that later instituted its grandson D. Bartholomeu Domingues, son of Feirol Sundays and D. Belida, who was son of the said D. Pelagio Oak. Of this First-born son he was Sebastio administrator Jose de Carvalho and Mello, the first Marquis of Pigeon house, for election of the Senate of the city of Coimbra, as the institution of it where it orders to call not to the son oldest the last possessor or more fond relative, but yes to most idoneous for the service of the king and the common good.

Old Portuguese family who proceeds from Bartolomeu Domingues Feirol and its woman. D. Belida, of Feirol Sundays for son of D. Paio de Carvalho, father-in-law of Martim Brando Blacksmith, Bartolomeu Domingues and its Soeiro woman Gomes de Carvalho, who succeeded in the First-born son of Oak and father of Ferno Gomes de Carvalho, administrator of the related one I tie.

Barcelona – Middle Ages

After the Roman Empire fell under the attacks of nomadic tribes, the Spanish Visigoths kingdom was founded. Barcelona has become one of the major cities of the kingdom, thanks to the convenient porta.V 716 Barcelona was conquered by the Arabs. However, the Arabs really did not remain in the city. After only a century Pyadoso Louis, son of Charlemagne rescued from Barcelona mavrov.V 801 the first year of a new era in the development of Barcelona. Port of Barcelona became one of the largest in the Mediterranean, and the city itself has grown considerably in various aspects. It was then, and there was the Barcelona County, which became independent in 988.

Since 11 century, Barcelona has developed more rapidly. Special impetus to the development of the city to confer on the union of the County of Barcelona with the Kingdom of Aragon in the 12 century. King Alfonso the first was the first ruler of this new gosudarstva.Korol Jaime First engaged in pushing back the frontiers of the kingdom. Border Catalan-Aragonese kingdom to the south extends to Valencia. Jaime also organized an expedition to conquer the Balearic Islands, followed by Barcelona became the capital of the largest state in medieval Europe in the Mediterranean area.

Modern Man

The author also approaches the ideas of Kroeber, that in its article ' ' The Superorgnico' ' it showed as the culture acts on the man, thanks to which the humanity distanciou itself of the animal world. Among others contributions of Kroeber for the magnifying of the culture concept, are distinguished the affirmations of that the culture, but of what the genetic inheritance, determines the behavior of the man and justifies its accomplishments. Moreover, it considers that the man acts its cultural standards in accordance with, as well as standes out that the culture is the way of adaptation the different ecological environments. 5 Idea on the origin of the culture According to Laraia, one of the first concerns of the scholars with regard to the culture mentions its origin to it. According to diverse authors, between them Richard Leackey and Roger Lewin, beginning of the development of the human brain is a consequence of the life arborcula of its remote ancestor. Anthropologist David Pilbem mentions to it the bipedismo as an exclusive characteristic of the primates between all the mammals, affirming that practically all the primates livings creature have characteristic behavior of bpedes of time in when.

Beyond the scholars already cited, the author standes out the contributions of Kenneth P. Oakley, which detaches the importance of the manual ability, made possible for the erected position, when providing greaters stimulatons to the brain, with consequent development of intelligence human being. He still detaches, Claude Lvi-Strauss, the most detached antropolgico Frenchman, which considers that the culture appeared at the moment where the man stipulated the first rule, the first norm. In turn, the writer Leslie Whiter, North American anthropologist contemporary, considers that the ticket of the animal state for the human being occurred when the brain of the man was capable to generate symbols. 6 Modern theories on the culture In its boarding concerning the modern theories on the culture, Laraia mentions famous authors to it as Keesing, which approaches initially the theories that consider the culture as adaptativo system, spread out for neo-evolucionistas as Leslie White. However, this position was reformulated creative by Sahlins, Harris, Sheep, Rapaport, Vayda among others that although the divergences agree to many aspects related to the culture. For they, cultures are standards of behaviors socially transmitted; the cultural change consists an adaptation process first equivalent the natural election; the technology, the economy of subsistence and the elements of directly on the social organization to the production constitute the domain adaptativo of the culture; the ideological components of the cultural systems can have adaptativas consequncias in the control of the population of the subsistence, the maintenance of the ecosystem etc. Beyond these reflections, Keesing mention the theories to it culture idealists, subdividing them in three different boardings: culture as cognitivos, structural and symbolic systems, all searching explanations for the culture definition. According to Laraia, other quarrels concerning the culture had been and still they are stopped in this field of knowledge, therefore the understanding of the same one involves the understanding of the proper nature human being, what it becomes the inexhaustible quarrel.